Immunomarkers

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  • i. GFAP – astrocytomas
  • ii. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) – embryonal carcinoma, endodermal sinus tumor
  • iii. Chromogranin – pituitary adenoma, paraganglioma
  • iv. Common leukocyte antigen – lymphoma, germinoma
  • v. Cytokeratin – carcinoma, craniopharyngioma, chordoma
  • vi. Desmin – rhabdosarcoma, teratoma
  • vii. HMB45 – melanoma
  • viii. Beta-HCG – choriocarcinoma
  • ix. Immunoglobulins kappa and lambda – lymphomas
  • x. Neurofilament and synaptophysin – ganglioglioma, PNET
  • xi. S100 – schwannoma, neurofibroma, glioma, PNET, chordoma, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma
  • xii. Synaptophysin – ganglioglioma, central neurocytoma
  • xiii. Transthyretin – choroid plexus tumors
  • xiv. Vimentin and EMA – meningioma; vimentin - neurofibroma
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